Old Testament -- Ecclesiastes - Daniel


Man’s wisdom shown to be foolishness. The world by wisdom knew not God. Under the sun—29 times. Vanity—37 times. Under the heavens—3 times. Upon the earth—7 times. God’s inspired record of what Solomon said in his heart as he considered things under the sun. Do the pleasures of life really compensate for the energy spent in obtaining them?

    1:1-11 Prologue.

    1:3 The ? of the Book.

    1:7 See 2 Cor. 9:8-11.

    1:9 no new thing under the sun—the awful “sameness” of natural law.

    1:12-15 Introduction. Fully qualified to make the test and see if there is happiness under the sun. 1 Kings 4:29.

    1:16—4:16 The search for lasting good.

    1:16-18 Wisdom does not satisfy.

    2:3 Pleasure does not satisfy.

    2:4 Architecture.

    2:5 Agriculture.

    2:6 Irrigation systems.

    2:7 The comforts that wealth can give. Power and authority.

    2:8 [first part] “Money is a universal provider for everything but happiness.” [last part] The liberal arts.

    2:12 Pleasures of learning philosophy. Materialism—living for the present.

    3:1-8 Fatalism. The eternal circle of life.

    Nothing abides—all moves—life is like a great wheel ever revolving.

    3:14 The works of God distinguished from the puny efforts of man.

    3:16 Legalized wickedness.

    3:18 The conclusion of the natural man when he only looks “under the sun.”

    3:21 See the answer in ch. 12:7.

    4:1 Injustice and oppression.

    4:10 The Second Man lifts up the first man!

    5—11 Considerations and conclusions based on experience.

    5:1 Reverence.

    5:4-5 Vows—See Num. 30. Integrity.

    5:13-20 Philosophical conclusions but the heart still unsatisfied. See Job 1:21.

    5:18-20 Moderation.

    6:6 [last clause] i.e., the grave.

    7—11 Commendation of morality.

    7:1-8 Note the seven comparisons.

    7:26 The love of women cannot satisfy.

    7:28 And he had 1000 wives and concubines!

    8 Commendation of wisdom.

    8:8 But Christ, when His work was done, “dismissed His Spirit.”

    8:10 See the case of Joram—2 Chron. 21:20.

    9 The philosophy of self-expression.

    9:1 [last part] The Douay translates “no man knoweth whether he is worthy of favor or hatred.”

    9:5 Not Annihilation—but a fact so far as one can see “under the sun.” know not anything—See i Sam. 20:39; 2 Sam. 15:11.
    Text used by materialists. Link with Job 3:13, 16; 10:18; 20:6-8; Ps. 39:13; 6:5; Isa. 38:18; Ps. 146:3, 4; 49:19, 20; Mal. 4:1-3. Note that these texts only have to do with man and the things of earth—the death is that of the body—and so far as man under the sun can see he disappears forever. But Christ brought life and incorruptibility to light through the gospel.

    9:14-15 The forgotten deliverer. A glimpse of Christ!

    10 Commendation of sobriety, integrity, moderation, etc.

    10:4 Yieldingness. Phil. 4:5.

    10:8 There is a law of retribution in life that man cannot turn aside.

    10:15 Unable to find the way.

    10:16 See Isa. 3:4 and 12.

    11:1 See v. 6. See Isa. 32:20.

    11:2 The highest conclusions of human wisdom.

    12 God should be sought for Himself alone.

look out of

doors shall be shut

almond tree
—white hair

silver cord
—spinal cord
golden bowl
[last part] circulation of the blood

All Failing


    12:7 The Spirit whether of the saved or lost has to do directly with God—the Father of Spirits—the God of the spirits of all flesh.

    12:14 The Day of Judgment. Rom. 1:32.

Song Of Solomon

The Book of Communion—the mutual love of the king and his bride—Solomon a type of Christ. Eph. 5:25-26.
A maiden of Israel—a shepherdess whose heart is won by a stranger-shepherd who is really the king of Israel.

    1:1—3:5 Division 1—The rapture of first love. 1 The bride of the king—The soul’s awakening.

    1:6 black—i.e., sunburnt.

    1:7 Question 1—Seven questions asked in this song. See ch. 3:3.

    1:13-17 With the king in the bower—conjugal love.

    2 The soul’s appreciation.

    2:8-10 The shepherd’s fiancee waiting for the coming of the bridegroom.

    3 The soul’s yearning.

    3:1-4 She dreams that she is searching for her shepherd-lover.

    3:3 [last part] Question 2—See ch. 3:6.

    3:4 I held him—As the babe clings to its mother—but it is the mother’s arms that hold it.

    3:6—5:1 Division 2—Nuptial rejoicing.

    3:6 The king comes to claim her. Question 3—See ch. 5:3.
    Heaven today is filled with the fragrance of the Cross of Christ.
    It is the Lord in resurrection here in view.

    4 The soul’s approval.

    4:1-7 The shepherd-king expresses his delight in his bride.

    4:8 Communion and separation. The “honeymoon.”
    —part of Mount Hermon. See Deut. 3:9; 1 Chron. 5:23; Ezek. 27:5.

    4:12-15 The enclosed well-watered garden—Gen. 2:10; Isa. 58:11; Jer. 31:12.

    4:16—5:16 The soul’s fruitfulness and exercises.

    5:2—8:14 Division 3—Separation and reunion.

    5:2-8 She dreams again of communion interrupted.

    5:3 Question 4—See ch. 5:9.

    5:9 Question 5—See ch. 6:1 for part two.

    6 The soul’s delight. Communion restored.

    6:1 Question 5, part two. See ch. 5:10.

    6:10 Question 6. See ch. 8:5.

    6:10-13 Reflecting him as she walks in his company.

    6:13 Second part of question 6.

    7 The soul’s fellowship. Communion enjoyed.

    7:5 Tresses—the glory of a woman is her hair.

    7:11 Fellowship in loving service.

    8 The soul’s union.
    The bride’s sense of her inferiority—His gracious response. 8:5 Question 7.

    8:6 Everlasting love—Jer. 31:3. See Ex. 28:29; John 15:13.

    8:7 most vehement flame—flame of Jah.

    8:11 Remembering the past.


    1:12 Ch. 29:8.

    1:13 Empty worship. Empty religion. Hos. 10:1; James 1:26; Matt. 15:9.

    1:15 When it is no use to pray. Prov. 28:9.

    2:2 Micah 4:1-3.

    2:3 Out of Zion. See Rom. 11:26 and Isa. 27:9.

    2:4 Contrast Joel 3:10.

    2:19 See the sixth seal, Rev. 6.

    5:8, 11, 18, 20, 21, 22;

    6:5 Seven woes.

    7:14 The Virgin’s Son to be the sign of Judah’s deliverance. But not in Ahaz’ day. See ch. 9:6-7.
    found six other places in O.T. Gen. 24:43; Ex. 2:8; Ps. 68:25; Cant. 1:3; Cant. 6:8; Prov. 30:19. Always a pure maiden.

    8:7 An army likened to a river. See ch. 18:2.

    8:9 The last great confederation to be of no avail.

    8:13-14 The stone identified with Jehovah.

    8:19-20 Spiritism forbidden of God.

    9:2 When the Light of World was there!

    9:6 God manifest. Faith’s appropriation of the promise of ch. 7:14.

    10:5 The last Assyrian coming against Jerusalem in the days of the final apostasy under antichrist.

    10:12 The Assyrian to be dealt with by God in the time of the end.

    10:20 The restoration of the remnant of Israel in the last days.

    10:24 The message to the remnant.

    11:1 Messiah, the Branch. See Jer. 23:5.

    11:2 The seven spirits of God. Rev. 1.

    12:3 “Wells of Salvation.” John 4 and John 7.

    13:13 “Yet once more.” See Heb. 12:26, 27.

    13:19 Babylon’s doom through the Medes—final—never to be restored.

    14:2 [last part] Leading captivity captive—Ps. 68:18; Eph. 4:8, Judg. 5:12.

    14:9-11 Consciousness in Sheol.

    14:12 Lucifer’s fall. See Ezek. 28:12.

    14:25 The last Assyrian, the king of the north. Dan. 11.

    15:5 [first part] Moab began at Zoar.

    17:6 The vine and the olive tree never to be totally destroyed. See Rom. 11.

    17:10 Palestine to be denuded of its forests and orchards.

    18:2 vessels of bulrushes—vessels that suck up water.

    19:3 [last part] Is this the Turk?

    19:7 paper reeds—papyrus.

    19:19 An altar in Egypt to Jehovah.

    21:2 The advance of the Persians and Medes upon Babylon foreseen.

    22:13 [last part] Also written by a Greek poet in later years.

    22:14 [last part] Sin unto death.

    22:22 See the letter to Philadelphia. Rev. 3.

    23:15 one king—i.e., Nebuchadnezzar.

    24:13 The remnant in the great tribulation.

    25 A psalm of praise.

    25:8 See Rev. 7.

    26:12 “God that worketh in you.” Phil. 2.

    27:1 The binding of Satan. Rev. 20:1, 2.

    27:3 Israel: Jehovah’s vineyard again under His care.

    27:13 The great trumpet. The true feast of trumpets at last!

    28:10 Line upon line. See this illustrated in the frequent repetitions of the sacrificial ritual.

    28:13 All God’s instruction misused.

    28:15 The 7-year covenant of Dan. 9. Ch. 24:5. See v. 18 of this chapter.

    28:20 The restless sleeper.

    29:8 The disappointed dreamer—empty lives and empty religion—Hos. 10:1; Isa. 1:13; Jas. 1:26.

    29:10-12 The attitude of many towards the Book of Revelation—But see Rev. 22:10.

    29:20-21 The reprover hated. Amos 5:10.

    30:18 God waits till the right time. We must wait too.

    30:21 Hos. 11:3 Guidance. Prov. 3:6. By the Word of God.

    32:6 [last part], 8 Error cannot feed the soul, however much the intellect may delight in it.

    32:17 Righteousness the ground of peace. Heb. 7:2.

    32:20 Eccl. 11:1, 6.

    34:4 Compare the sixth seal in Rev. 6.

    34:5 See Zech. 13:7.

    36—39 Historical parenthesis.

    37:14 The letter of blasphemy. Contrast ch. 39:1.

    38:20 The Jews call psalms 120 to 137 “Hezekiah’s Song Book.”

    39 Letters and a present. Contrast 37:4.

    40—48 Jehovah’s controversy with idols.

    40:8 1 Pet. 1:25.

    40:9, 10, 13 The Trinity—v. 9 your God.—v. 10 the Lord God Jehovah, who is the Shepherd-King.—v. 13 the Spirit of the Lord. See ch. 48:16.

    40:31 Eagles do not go in flocks. If you would mount up as an eagle, you must be willing to go alone.

    41:21, 22 Jehovah’s challenge to the idol priests and the false prophet.

    41:23 “Things to come” only to be made known by the Spirit of God.

    43:9-12 Israel’s history, the witness to the truth of the prophetic word. See also ch. 44:8.

    43:13 2 Thess. 2:6. 44:3 Water and the Spirit.

    45:2 Christ can make all our crooked places straight.

    45:3 He opens the doors by His omnipotent power. See the message to Philadelphia, Rev. 3.

    45:13 Referring to Cyrus the Great.

    45:15 See this illustrated in the Book of Esther.

    45:18 The earth not created a waste—bohu—void—in vain—See Gen. 1:1, 2.

    45:22 Look—Heb. panah—to turn. To look to Him is to trust—to turn from all else.

    46:1, 2 Fleeing from their foes with their idols. The gods of the heathen have to be carried. The true God carries His people.

    46:9, 10 See Ps. 119:160.

    46:13 Righteousness to be brought by the gospel.

    47 Literal Babylon—compare spiritual Babylon in Rev. 17—18.

    48:1 Pride of position, but in a wretchedly unspiritual condition.

    48:5 Through Moses in Lev. 27.

    48:12 See the Alpha and Omega in Rev. 1.

    48:16 The divine Trinity.

    48:17 See ch. 40:9-13.

    48:18 Ps. 81.

    48:22 The end of Jehovah’s controversy with idols.

    49—57 The rejection of the true servant of Jehovah.

    49:3, 4 Christ taking His place as the true Israel.

    49:5 Rejected by the nation.

    49:6 A Saviour of the Gentiles.

    49:12 Sinim is generally identified with China or the Far East.

    49:14-17 Zion is ever before God and dear to His heart, even during all the years of Israel’s blindness and the desolation of the land.

    49:18-19 Future restoration and blessing.

    49:22 The return to God and to the land in the last days.

    50:4 Ps. 40:6. The ear opened.—Discipleship. See Ex. 21.

    51:5 God’s righteousness (Romans). See Isa. 46:12-13; 56:1.

    52 The restoration of Israel to God and to the land in the new age.

    52:3 See their complaint in Ps. 44:12.

    52:13-15 The suffering Servant—His humiliation and exaltation.

    53:1-3 The Servant before God and man.

    53:4-6 The atoning Saviour.

    53:7-9 His mock trial, death, and burial.

    53:9 His grave was appointed with the wicked but He lay with the rich in His death.

    53:10-12 The sinner’s Substitute—His Resurrection and its results.

    54 Israel’s future blessing based on the atonement of Christ.

    54:1 He suffered that His redeemed might be able to sing for joy.

    55:1 The gospel invitation.

    56:1 The righteousness of God. See ch. 46:13; 51:5; 59:16.

    56:8 other sheep have I.—John 10.

    56:10 dumb dogs—Beware of dogs—Phil. 3:2.

    57:15 Eternity—Only place in the English Bible.

    57:19 the fruit of the lips—Heb. 13:15; Ps. 119:108.

    58—66 The end of the Lord’s controversies with Israel— Their restoration, conversion, and millennial blessing.

    58:9 Conditions upon which God answers prayer. Contrast Prov. 24:11-12.

    58:11 a watered garden—Gen. 2:10; Isa. 27:2-3; Cant. 4:15; Jer. 31:12.

    59:5, 6 adder’s eggs and spider’s webs—Ps. 58:4; Ps. 140:3. See Job 8:14.

    59:19 The restrainer. 2 Thess. 2.

    60 Millennial glory following upon the repentance of Israel.

    61:1-3 The anointed Saviour: 1—the anointing, 2—the purpose of the anointing, 3—the results of the preaching.

    61:3 ashes—All the joys of life have burnt out.

    62:1 The burning lamp. See Gen. 15:17.

    62:5 [last part] Canticles.

    63 Judgment on the nations that have rejected the gospel —the precursor to Israel’s blessing.

    63:10-14 The Holy Spirit in the O.T. A divine person who might be “vexed” and who led the people and was “put within” some of them. See note at Eph. 4:32. The Spirit of God in the wilderness (Neh. 9:20); in Moses —and with the people in the land.

    64 Confession and prayer of the remnant.

    64:1 Removing mountains—Matt. 21:21, 23; Mark 11:23; Zech. 4:7.

    65:3 altars of brick—human limitations.

    66:4 [first clause] judicial darkness. 2 Thess. 2.

    66:5 High exclusive claims.

    66:7 Israel the mother of the man-child. Rev. 12; Jer. 4:31.

    66:17 Sanctified to do iniquity.


Jeremiah prophesied prior to the finding the book of the Law (2 Chron. 34) in the days of Josiah—and continued to the end of Judah’s occupation of the land—100 years later than Isaiah. Later than Hosea, Joel, Amos, Micah, Nahum, Jonah. Contemporary with Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah, and Ezekiel. Daniel studied Jeremiah (Dan. 9).

    1—24 Division 1—Jehovah’s pleading with His erring people—”A vessel chosen and fitted.”

    1:5 Jeremiah’s call.

    1:6 Compare with Moses.

    1:9 Isaiah’s was the touch of cleansing. Jeremiah’s is the touch of power.

    1:10 Note the authority connected with the prophetic office. Consider Paul—Peter—Savonarola—Gregory of Armenia—John Knox—Calvin—Luther—etc.

    1:11 almond tree—“hastening tree.”

    1:12 The pledge of reassurance.

    1:13-16 The judgment Judah must endure from the north—Chaldea, etc. 2—3:5 Entreaty and warning.

    2:2 Their first love. Connect with “Ephesus” in Rev. 2.

    2:7 Contrast with our inheritance—1 Pet. 1:4.

    2:13 See John 4:14; 7:37, 39—God Himself will break every cistern we make if we forsake Him.

    2:17 Reaping as they sowed.

    2:24 The wild ass—the unregenerate man.

    2:26 Not ashamed of the sin, but of its discovery.

    2:27-28 No right to count on God in the day of trouble if not walking with Him before the trouble comes.

    3:3 Deut. 11:14—The latter rain withheld because of idolatry. See ch. 5:24.

    3:6—6:30 Future glory conditioned upon repentance.

    3:7 Only one king of Israel is said to have sought the Lord—Jehoahaz. 2 Kings 13:4, 5.

    3:8-11 There was much that was unreal in the great revival under Josiah.

    3:12-13 Confession demanded as a prelude to blessing.

    3:16 Last mention of the Ark in the O.T.

    3:19 [first part] Repentance predicted—The Need of New Birth.

    4:1-2 The need of reality. Jehovah’s response to the cry of anguish in the previous chapter.

    4:3 A good word for the evangelist!

    4:5-13 Vision of the invading army. Nebuchadnezzar and his Chaldean army. 4:14 The only door of escape unheeded, so the judgment must fall.

    4:23-31 The coming desolation of the land at the Babylonian conquest and at the time of the end.

    5:1 Looking for one to stand in the breach.

    5:14 See the two witnesses of Rev. 11:5. Jer. 20:9.

    5:18-21 Judah to be carried back to the very land from which God had called Abraham, because of unfaithfulness to the truth.

    5:24 Ch. 3:3—Israel exhorted to recognize the Giver of the latter rain—See Hos. 6:3.

    5:30-31 The apostate condition fully exposed.

    6:1 Call to separation addressed to the Benjamites.

    6:4 The declining day!

    6:14 No peace.

    6:15 No shame.

    6:16 The old way and the old paths—See Prov. 14:12.

    6:18 The nation called to witness the righteousness of the Lord’s dealings.

    7—10 “What agreement hath the Temple of God with idols?” Judgment must begin at the house of God.

    7:1-7 The defilement of the sanctuary.

    7:4 No time for high exclusive claims.

    7:5-7 Great pretensions while neglecting righteousness—2 Tim. 2:22—“Follow righteousness.”

    7:8-16 The divorce of position from condition.

    7:11 Referred to by our Lord in Matt. 21:13, linked with Isa. 56:7.

    7:12 Jerusalem to be left desolate as Shiloh.

    7:16 Sin unto death—Too late for prayer to be of any avail.

    7:17-20 The Babylonian cult set up in Jerusalem. Astarte or Ashtaroth (Semiramis) worship.

    7:21-28 Sacrifices of no value while living in sin.

    7:28 No heed to the prophetic message.

    7:29-34 Terrible retribution coming.

    7:31 The origin of Gehenna (outside Jerusalem) used by Christ as a picture of eternal judgment. See ch. 19:4-8.

    8:1-3 Unsparing judgment.

    8:3 Choosing death. Deut. 30:19.

    8:4-12 Jerusalem given up to perpetual backsliding.

    8:6-19 Not saved v. 20 Why?
    (1) Unrepentant v. 6.
    (2) Unobservant v. 7—Nature would have instructed —but they heeded not.
    (3) Pride of intellect—the Word rejected v. 8.
    (4) Self-deceived v. n.
    (5) Utterly shameless v. 12.
    (6) Carnal optimism v. 15.
    (7) Religious formality v. 19.

    8:9 A word for modernists.

    8:13-17 Unsparing judgment.

    8:18-22 A lamentation over the awful state of the people.

    8:20 Not saved.

    8:22 Three Questions: Balm in Gilead.
    1—Is there no remedy? Answer: God’s Word: “He sent His Word and healed them”—Ps. 107:20. His wounds—“by His stripes—healed”—Isa. 53:5. His wings—“healing in His wings”—Mai. 4:2. His ways—“as they went—healed”—Luke 17:14.
    2—Is there no physician? Answer: Christ.
    3—Why not healed? The remedy refused.

    9:1-8 Jeremiah’s identification with the erring people.

    9:9-11 Jerusalem’s desolation.

    9:12-16 A challenge to consider these things.

    9:17-22 Time to mourn.

    9:23-24 True glory is to know the Lord.

    9:25-26 “No difference.”

    10 The Folly of Idolatry—Compare Isa. 44.

    10:23 Self-judgment—Prov. 4:26; 5:21; 20:24.

    11—12 The burned branches and the swelling of Jordan. Jehovah’s expostulation—ch. 11.

    11:4 The iron furnace—See Abraham’s vision—Gen. 15:17.
    [last part] Law—demands then gives. Grace gives and beseeches.

    11:11 Useless to pray if determined upon disobedience—Jer. 14:11.

    11:14 Sin unto death—1 John 5:16.

    11:16 The olive tree—compare with Rom. 11:16-26.

    11:18-20 Jeremiah speaks for the godly remnant. The tree to be preserved though the branches be destroyed.

    12 Jeremiah’s intercession—Compare with Hab. 1:12.

    13 The marred girdle—the girdle the sign of service— Israel set aside as an unprofitable servant and must be carried to Babylon.

    13:9-10 Judah to be carried to the valley of the Euphrates and chastised there for the sin of idolatry.

    Natural darkness—Ephesians.
    Wilful darkness—John 3.
    Judicial darkness—Jeremiah 15.
    Eternal darkness—Jude.
    Judicial darkness because of light rejected. Compare with 2 Thess. 2:11, 12—Isa. 66:4.

    13:18 Jehoiakim and his consort directly addressed.

    13:23 The trouble is in the nature of man.

    14 Dialogue between God and Jeremiah.

    14—15 Famine—temporal and spiritual.

    14:1-6 The real famine was within.

    14:7-9 Confession and prayer.

    14:10-12 God’s answer.

    14:11 Too late for prayer.

    14:13-17 False prophets give false comfort.

    14:17-2 2 The prophet’s complaint.

    15:1-9 Jehovah’s answer.

    15:1 No hope of deliverance.

    15:4 Literally fulfilled.

    15:10 Jeremiah’s complaint.
    Separation the path of the faithful.

    15:11-14 Jehovah’s answer.

    15:15-18 Jeremiah’s protestation.

    15:16 The Word and the Name—Eating the Word—See Ezek. 3:1-3—Rev. 10:8-11.

    15:19-21 Jehovah’s promise.

    15:20 The separated man a witness for God.

    15:21 Redemption.

    16—17 Apostasy till there is no remedy.

    16:7 The O.T. reference to the breaking of bread. See Ps. 45:17.

    16:14-15 The predicted return—See ch. 31:36.

    17:1 Sin where the blood should be—See Lev. 4:7, 18, 2 5 and 30.

    17:9 The deceitful heart of man—Illustration: Benedict Arnold wrote Miss Shippen, afterwards his 2d wife: “I daily discover so much baseness and ingratitude among mankind, that I almost blush at being of the same species.”

    7:20-27 The sabbath a test of the true condition of the people.

    18—19 Lessons from the potter’s house.

    18:1-17 The message.

    18:14 [last clause] i.e., Had the snows of Lebanon ceased to supply the cold flowing spring?

    18:18-23 The message rejected.

    19 The second message.

    19:6 Tophet: the Valley of Hinnom. Gehenna—See ch. 7:31.

    20 Pashur the false prophet opposes.

    20:2 Jeremiah arrested.

    20:14 Compare with Job 3.

    21—24 The siege and captivity foretold.

    21:2 When it is no use to pray—See Prov. 1.

    22 The doom of the kings of Judah. Four false shepherds to be destroyed.

    22:11 Shallum—referring to Shallum or Jehoahaz, who had been carried to Egypt.

    22:30 [first part] The curse of Coniah: If Jesus were Joseph’s natural son He would be barred from the throne of David, but as Son of Mary by divine generation He inherits the throne. See the two genealogies— Matt, 1 and Luke 3.

    23 The true King.

    23:18 Quoted from in 1 Cor. 2:16.

    23:21 False prophets misleading a credulous people.

    23:28-29 The Word of God in contrast to idle dreams. Fire and hammer.

    24 The good and bad figs. A judicial summing up.

    25—51 Division 2—Judgment executed because the people refuse to hearken.

    25 The seventy years’ captivity foretold.

    25:11 The seventy years’ servitude. See Dan. 9:2. Distinguish between the 70 years’ servitude and the 70 years’ desolations.

    25:29 Compare 1 Pet. 4:17.

    26 Danger and deliverance.

    26:11 Indignation against the “pessimist.”

    27—28 Bonds and yokes.

    27:1 Jehoiakim—See R. V. Zedekiah—copyist’s error.

    27:6 The beginning of the times of the Gentiles. See Dan. 2. The head of gold. For the end, see Luke 21.

    27:15 Linking the sacred Name with their own dreamings —See ch. 29:9.

    27:22 The return of the vessels. See Ezra 1.

    28 The false prophet, Hananiah.

    28:3, 11 Time prophecies always a trap unless the prophet be divinely inspired.

    29 The prophet’s letter to the first of the captivity (under Jehoiachin). The seventy years are the length of one Babylonian empire. They began B.C. 606 with the servitude of 2 Kings 24:1.

    29:14 The predicted return, ch. 30:3.

    30—31 Dispensational—Jacob’s trouble and the restoration to follow.

    30:7 The great tribulation—Matt. 24; Rev. 7.

    31:15 Fulfilled when Herod sought to kill the infant Jesus.

    31:20 See the entire prophecy of Hosea.

    31:31 The new covenant—Heb. 10. Note—It is to be made with Israel and Judah—not with the Church.

    31:36 Israel’s Restoration. See Ezek. 36:23. The unbreakable covenant. See ch. 23:35.

    31:38-40 The new city—See Zech. 14:10. The corner of Hananeel has already been uncovered.

    32—33 Jeremiah’s imprisonment.

    32:10 The sealed title deed.

    32:11 Key to the sealed book in Rev. 5.

    32:17 Answer to God’s question—Gen. 18:14.

    32:35 They would do for their idols what they would never do for God and what He would never ask of them.

    34 Bondage in place of liberty. A jubilee proclaimed and then rescinded.

    35 The house of the Rechabites.

    36 The Word of God rejected.

    36:23 The man who knifed the Word of God! The first destructive critic on record.

    36:32 Compare and contrast—Rev. 22:18, 19.

    37—39 The fall of Jerusalem.

    37:3, 17 No use to pray when walking in disobedience.

    38:4 What passes for patriotism in opposition to God’s truth.

    38:7 The faithfulness of Ebed-melech: a Negro.

    38:19 “The fear of man bringeth a snare.”

    39:7 The man who would not see when he could, now cannot see when he would. Ezek. 12:13.

    40—44 The remnant left in the land. 40:14 Gedaliah—a guileless man.

    41 Ishmael’s treachery.

    41:6 What a hypocrite!

    41:17 Chimham—Tradition connects this with the inn in which Jesus was born.

    42:2-3 Insincere in their request. No use to pray if there be not reality. See v. 20.

    43:4 Wilful disobedience in going down to Egypt.

    44:3-4 Idolatry—the sin that God hated above all others.

    44:15-19 The folly of depending on experience in place of obedience to the Word of God. A common mistake in all dispensations. Faith in, and obedience to the Word of God. See ch. 7:18-19.

    45 The Word to Baruch.

    46—49 God’s Word to the nations.

    46:2 Egypt (1).

    46:7-8 Armies symbolized by rivers and overflowing floods.

    46:27-28 Israel to be punished but preserved by God.

    47:1 Philistia (2).

    47:6 The sword of the Lord—Zech. 13:7—Ezek. 21:3.

    48:1 Moab (3).

    48:37 Hair—the strength of nature.

    48:38 vessel wherein is no pleasure—Rom. 9. Vessels of wrath.

    48:45 See the prophecy of Balaam—Num. 21:28.

    48:46-47 Moab’s doom—compare the prophecy of Balaam—Num. 24:17.

    49:1 Ammon (4).

    49:2 [last part] Captivity to be led captive.

    49:7 Edom (5). Connect with Obadiah.

    49:11 Insurance—A wonderful promise in the midst of words of judgment.

    49:23 Syria (6).

    49:28 Arabia (7).

    49:34 Elam (8).

    50—51 Doom of Babylon and Judah’s deliverance.

    50:15 Righteous retribution.

    50:38 Babylon the mother of idolatry.

    50:39 Literally fulfilled for many centuries.

    51:6 The call to flee is given in mercy. It is not legal. See v. 45. Connect with Rev. 17.

    51:20 Israel: Jehovah’s battle ax.

    51:25 Connect with Rev. 8:8.

    51:37-39 All literally fulfilled through the centuries.

    51:45 The call to separation. See v. 6.

    52 Historical appendix by another hand. Compare with ch. 39.

    52:28 The servitude.

    52:29 The captivity.

    52:30 The desolations.


The prophet’s grief over the fulfilment of what he had himself predicted. The Spirit of Christ entering into all the afflictions of His people.

    1 The desolations of Jerusalem. An acrostic—each verse starts with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

    1:3 No rest!

    1:6 No pasture!

    1:9 No comforter!

    1:12-13 The Spirit of Christ speaking in the prophet.

    2 The day of the Lord’s anger—Same acrostic form as ch. 1 and ch. 4.

    2:4-5 As an adversary and an enemy—but not really one.

    2:9 No Vision!

    3 “Let us search and try our ways.”
    Full manifestation of Judah’s fallen condition.
    The prophet fully identifies himself with the people. Their sins are his, their woes are his. Their judgments are shared by him. A triple acrostic. Each section of 3 verses begins with the same letter in each verse.

    3:8 See v. 44.

    3:18-20 He will never forget the wormwood and the gall.

    3:21 Hope in the midst of deep grief.

    3:22-23 Subjection under discipline.

    3:31-32 Confidence in God in the hour of trial.

    3:40 Call to repentance.

    4 The fine gold become dim. Acrostic as ch. 1 and 2.

    4:19 “The lion with eagle’s wings.”

    4:21 Connect with the prophecy of Obadiah.

    5 Thou, O Lord remainest forever! The acrostic form is not followed in this chapter.


The Sanctuary Book of the series—Ezekiel the priest leading us into the presence of God. Division 1—Prophecies prior to the destruction of Jerusalem—Chapters 1 to 32. Division 2—Prophecies after the destruction of Jerusalem—Chapters 33 to 48.

    1—24 Section 1—Judgments concerning Jerusalem.

    1—3:14 The vision of the glory of God and the call to the prophetic office.
    The vision of the divine government. God is over all and in all.
    The human linked with and controlled by the divine.
    Winged directness. There are no second causes to the eye of the man of faith.

    1:3 the hand of the Lord was there upon him—This phrase found seven times: ch. 1:3; 3:14, 22; 8:1; 33:22; 37:1; 40:1.

    1:4 The divine chariot.

    1:5 The cherubim. Intelligence—the universe is not at the mercy of chance.

    1:7 brass—judgment.
    —winged stability, a sure foot.

    1:10 face of a man—Luke.
    face of a lion—Matthew.
    face of an ox—Mark—ox literally cherub. See ch. 10:4.
    face of an eagle—John.
    the man—intelligence.
    the lion—strength and majesty.
    the ox—stability, dependableness, service.
    the eagle—Providence, swiftness in judgment, perception. “Reason, courage, patience, aspiration, all are winged: touched with the divine.”

    1:15-21 The wheels of the divine chariot. God’s ways with men on the earth.

    1:16 Wheels within wheels—His ways past finding out.

    1:19 No turning aside the divine government.

    1:26 A Man upon the throne. “We see Jesus, crowned with glory and honor.”

    1:28 Compare with Isa. 6:1-10.

    2:1 Collapse—the result of coming into the presence of God.

    2:3-8 The call to the prophetic office. Ezekiel’s commission. Compare with Isaiah, Moses, Jeremiah, Daniel, Peter, etc.

    2:8 Eating the Book. Compare with John in Rev. 10 and with Jer. in ch. 15:16.

    3:3 The Word must enter into the inward parts.

    3:15—7:2 7 The judgment announced. Four signs.

    3:17 Commissioned to be a watchman.

    3:18-19 Compare with Paul to the Ephesian elders, Acts 20.

    4:1-3 The first acted-out sermon.

    4:4-8 The second acted-out sermon.

    4:5 390 Days of Israel’s apostasy.

    4:6 40 Days—Judah’s apostasy.

    4:9-12 The third acted-out sermon.

    4:12 bake it with—Note: Not mingle with but use as part of the fuel.

    4:15 Cattle chips as fuel. 5:1-4 The fourth acted-out sermon.

    5:5 Jerusalem always in the center of the stage, as God views the nations.

    5:14-15 All the centuries since have witnessed the truth of this prophecy.

    8—11 Visions relating to Jerusalem.

    8:2 fire—“of a man.” In Heb. esh is “fire” and ish is “man.” See Rev. 10.

    8:10 Creeping things and beasts of all kinds put in the place of God. Rom. 1.

    8:11 Shaphan the scribe who received from Hilkiah the book of the law found in the Temple—2 Kings 22:8-11; Jer. 39:14.

    8:12 “Character is what a man is in the dark.”

    8:14 Tammuz the son of Nimrod, called by the Babylonians Dumuzi—The god of spring vegetation who dies, goes to Hades, and returns in spring—Easter.

    9 The man with the inkhorn—Sealing of the faithful ones—As in the coming great tribulation.

    The Word for mark is tav—the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Formerly written as a cross.

    9:6 1 Pet. 4:17.

    10 The coals of fire.

    10:2 Connect with Rev. 8:5.

    10:4 The slow departure of the Shekinah from the Temple.

    10:8 The angel of the covenant. 10:12 The eyes of the Lord searching out evil.

    10:14 cherub—Note that what was before the face of an ox is now an angel!

    10:18 The glory moving away in the divine chariot.

    11 Judgment on the leaders.

    11:13 Suddenly destroyed—no remedy.

    11:16-19 God to be the sanctuary of the scattered nation.
    Their restoration promised when they shall be born again. John 3.

    11:22-24 Ichabod—the Shekinah on the Mt. of Olives. Complete withdrawal. Whence the Lord Himself went up!

    12—19 Signs, messages, and parables.

    12:1-6 The sign of the evacuation of Jerusalem.

    12:13 [last part] Zedekiah blinded by the king of Babylon. Jer. 39:7.

    12:17-20 Sign of the affliction that was to come.

    12:21-28 Judgment not to be delayed.

    13 Against false prophets and prophetesses.

    14:3 Useless to pray with idols in the heart. See ch. 20:2, 3.

    14:21 See the 2d, 3d, and 4th seals of Rev. 6.

    15 Parable of the unfruitful vine—Contrast with the True Vine in John 15.

    16 Parable of the abandoned child.

    16:3 i.e., Jerusalem originally a Canaanitish city, Jebus.

    16:6-14 It is all what He did!

    16:10 Only reference to badgers’ skin apart from the Tabernacle. Really dolphin or seal skin, impervious to the elements. Typical of separation sanctification. The feet protected from defilement.

    16:26 Egypt—type of the world, great of flesh. See Jas. 4:4.

    16:55 No reference to eternal conditions but earthly blessing—which Judah had forfeited, as had Sodom and Samaria.

    17 Parable of the two eagles, the cedar, and the vine.

    17:3 great eagle—Nebuchadnezzar.
    highest branch of the cedar

    7:5 Zedekiah.

    17:7 another great eagle—Pharaoh Hophra, king of Egypt.

    17:9 The Egyptian alliance of no avail to ward off the judgment.

    18 God’s judgments are in righteousness.
    Sour grapes. Putting the blame on God as in Ex. 34:7. Principles of the divine government. The Divine Government. Not Soul Salvation. See also ch. 33. Life for obedience. This is governmental law, not the gospel.

    18:32 2 Pet. 3:9—God’s desire for all men. See ch. 9 Lamentation over the princes of Israel.

    20—24 Final predictions concerning the doom of Jerusalem.

    20 Arraignment of the nation for its unfaithfulness. To be chastened for their sins but restored to the Lord in the last days.

    20:3 No use to pray—See Jer. 21:1-7; Ezek. 14:3.

    20:33 The future restoration.

    20:35 The wilderness of the people.

    20:47 The green and the dry trees. See ch. 17:24; Hos. 10:8.

    21 The impending judgment—The sword song.

    21:3 Zech. 13:7.

    21:5 The sword that was sheathed in the heart of Jesus.

    21:10 How can man make mirth with judgment like a sword hanging over him?

    21:16 Decide!

    21:21 Literally, “he shook his arrows” in the divination ceremony.

    21:25 thou profane wicked prince of Israel—Zedekiah type of antichrist. Literally, “O deadly wounded one, the prince of Israel.”

    21:26 The crown reserved for the Man of God’s counsels —Connect with Hos. 3.

    22 Jerusalem’s abominations.

    22:7-13 Note how he rings the changes on in thee.

    22:12 Matt. 23:37.

    22:14 Two solemn questions. See Job 9:4.

    22:30 No mediator.

    23:25 [first part] Nose and ears taken away. Impossible now to discern or hear the mind of God.

    24 The final message.

    24:2 The very date of the beginning of the siege made known by the Spirit.

    24:25-27 The prophet to be dumb till tidings came of Jerusalem’s fall—See ch. 33:22.

    25—32 Judgments upon the nations.

    25:2 Ammon (1).

    25:8 Moab (2). Jer. 48:29.

    25:12 Edom (3). God had commanded Israel to be kind to Edom—Deut. 23:7.

    25:15 Philistia (4).

    26:2 Tyre (5) rock. First mentioned in Josh. 19:29 as “the strong city.”

    26:4 Literally fulfilled.

    27:5 Senir—i.e., Hermon. See Deut. 3:9; 1 Chron. 5:23; Cant. 4:8.

    27:14 Togarmah—Armenia.

    28:2 Type of the antichrist—2 Thess. 2.

    28:12-16 No human king. Satan’s former estate and his fall—See John 8:44 and Isa. 14:12.

    28:15 Satan an apostate.

    28:16 Here the personal description ends.

    28:17 Tyre again before the mind of the prophet. The city has followed the lead of the “king.” “The condemnation of the devil.”

    28:20 Zidon (6).

    29:1 Egypt (7).

    29:3 Pharaoh—type of Satan. The river the source of Egypt’s life, yet God is not acknowledged.

    30:3 The time of the heathen. Connect with “the times of the Gentiles.” Luke 21:24.

    30:13 No prince of Egyptian blood to sit on Egypt’s throne—yet there is a king of the south in the time of the end.

    31:6 Compare with Daniel 4 and the parable of the mustard tree.

    32 The funeral dirge over Pharaoh—Hophra.

    32:17 An elegy over Egypt.

    32:21 Hell is Sheol, the unseen world.

    33—48 Part 2—Predictions after the destruction of Jerusalem.

    33—44 Section 1—The watchman and the shepherds.

    33:11 2 Pet. 3:9. God’s desire that all men should be saved. See 1 Tim. 2:4; Matt. 23:37; Luke 13:34; Ezek. 18:32.

    33:18-20 Summary of the principles of the divine government. God’s governmental ways with men in the flesh. The principle laid down in Ex. 34 still holds good. The divine government. God is ever true to His Word—but none can establish his own righteousness so God makes another change and gives the individual who repents a promise of mercy and declares He will judge those who sin against Him. It is law still. Life (on this earth) for obedience is not the gospel, which is “believe and live.”

    33:21 Tidings of Jerusalem’s fall confirming the prophetic word.

    33:24 Their idle boast when they lacked the faith of Abraham.

    33:30 Hearing but not acting on what they hear.

    33:32 Entertained but not exercised.

    34:2 The false shepherds to be judged. The Lord Himself, the Good Shepherd. Connect with John 10.

    34:8 The false shepherds.

    34:10 “As they that must give an account.” 1 Peter 5:2-3.

    34:11 The Good Shepherd.

    34:20 Jehovah the Saviour.

    34:23 The Coming Redeemer—The true Shepherd—Jer. 30:9; Hos. 3:5.

    34:26 “Showers of blessing.” The times of refreshing—Acts 3:19, 20.

    35—36 Section 2—Judgments upon Mt. Seir—and Israel’s restoration predicted.

    36 Promises of grace for Israel following judgment on their enemies.

    36:17 Contrast 1 Peter 1:4—“undeniable.”

    36:21 See Rom. 2:24.

    36:23-38 Note the “I will’s” (18).

    37—48 Future blessing of Israel. Millennial conditions following the great tribulation.

    37:1-3 A scene of death: man’s state as God beholds it. Life in the message: “I am come that they might have life.” Compare with Dan. 12:2.

    37:5 Bones are no obstacle to the bonemaker.

    37:9-10 The breath in the winds and the voice of God in all circumstances. Life is in the Word.

    37:24 One Shepherd. Note that in John 10 the saved from the Gentiles “other sheep” are to be part of the flock of the same Good Shepherd.

    38 The great northern confederation of the last days. Compare with the predictions of the Assyrian of the end times—Isa. 10; Micah 5:5. Note that these are largely nations outside of the Roman empire.

    38:2 chief prince—Prince of Rosh, i.e., Russia.

    38:15 Typical Cossack troops.

    38:22 Either natural hailstones, etc., or perhaps bombing from airplanes.

    39:9 Seven years burning the weapons of war.

    39:12 Seven months burying the dead of the great invading army.

    39:17 The doom of the northern invader. See “the great supper of God” in Rev. 19.

    39:23-29 Millennial blessing for Israel. The last foe defeated.

    40—48 The vision of the millennial temple and its worship.

    40—42 Section 1—The sanctuary.

    40:1 beginning of the year—Rosh Hoshanah.
    fourteenth year—B.C. 572. 40:2 Compare with the vision of the heavenly Jerusalem from a “very high mountain” in Rev. 21.

    41 The inner sanctuary.

    41:18 Two faces—intelligence and majesty.

    41:22 [last part] The altar called the table. See 1 Cor. 10.

    41:26 narrow—closed.
    thick planks
    —the portals.

    42:6 straitened—narrowed, i.e., the stories were terraced.

    43—46 Section 2—The temple worship in the coming age.

    43:10 The vision intended to provoke to repentance that the soul may be ashamed.

    43:12 Holiness the law of the house of God.

    44:31 The priestly food: the One who voluntarily went into death. “No man taketh My life from Me.” I lay it down of myself.

    45:20 The “simple” one covered by the blood of atonement.

    45:21-23 The passover in the millennium. The memorial of the work of the Cross.

    46:13-15 Continual memorial of the death of Christ and the recognition of the perfection of His Person.

    47—48 Section 3—The regeneration of the land of Israel.

    47 The vision of the living waters—Joel 3:18; Zech. 14:8. This river runs all through the Scriptures. Gen. 2:10; Ps. 36:8; 46:4; 65:9; Isa. 58:11; Song of Sol. 4:15; Isa. 27:2, 3.
    “Before the prophet could tell others of the river he had to be brought into it himself.” Dolman.
    “As long as you remain in the stream you have clean feet.” Dolman. 1 Sam. 2:9.
    “Cleansing of the daily walk.” Always in the stream.
    Compare with the pure river of water of life, clear as crystal in Rev. 22. Wherever God rests a river flows forth to bless mankind.

    47:3 The walk in the Spirit—“up to the ankles.”

    47:4 knees—praying in the Spirit.
    to the loins
    —working in the Spirit.

    47:5 to swim in—all for God. Life in the fullness of the Spirit.

    47:10 En-gedi, En-eglaim—at the two ends of the Dead Sea.

    47:11-12 Chemicals to be obtained from the Dead Sea district. Compare the river of Rev. 22.

    48:30-35 Answering to the gates in the heavenly city above. See Rev. 21.


    1:8 Purpose of heart. See Acts 11:23.

    2:18-19 Prayer—ministry—worship.

    2:21 God changes the “times and seasons.” See Acts 1:7; 1 Thess. 5:1.

    2:31 The image of “the times of the Gentiles.”

    2:35 [last part] Matt. 21:44.

    2:36-45 The interpretation.

    2:38 Babylon.

    2:39 Medo-Persia—Greco-Macedonia.

    2:40 Roman.

    2:41 The nations in the last days.

    2:42 toes of the feet—the ten kingdoms. Rev. 13 and 17.

    2:45 “The stone that will fall from heaven.”

    3:12 certain Jews—the faithful remnant.

    3:19 [last part] the great tribulation in figure.

    3:27 Yielded bodies—Rom. 12:1.

    5 Babylon’s destruction typical of the overthrow of the false religious system in the time of the end. Rev. 17.

    6:17 The sealed stone—as at the tomb of Christ.

    7:1-15 The vision.

    7:4 lion—Babylon.

    7:5 bear—Medo-Persia.

    7:6 leopard—Greece.

    7:7 fourth beast—Rome.

    7:8 The last monarch.

    7:13 The kingdom of the Son of Man.

    7:16-28 The interpretation.

    7:19 The Roman empire.

    7:20 The last ten kings.

    7:21 The great tribulation.

    7:24 The same as the ten toes on the image of chapter 2.

    7:25 [last part] 3 ½ years.

    8:5 Alexander the Great.

    8:6 Darius Codomanus.

    8:8 Alexander’s empire broken into four parts. 8:9 Antiochus Epiphanes.

    8:22 Cassander, king of Greece; Lysimachus, king of Thrace; Seleucus, king of Syria; Ptolemy, king of Egypt.

    9 Prophetic years are 360 days each. 3 ½ years in the Apocalypse, 1260 days or 42 months of 30 days. So 483 years would be 173880—the exact number of days from Artaxerxes’ decree to Palm Sunday.

    9:2 Daniel a student of Jeremiah and Chronicles.

    9:13 [last part] Understanding the truth is the result of turning from iniquity.

    9:24 The backbone of prophecy.

    9:27 The covenant between the beast and the antichrist.

    See Isa. 28:15-18.

    10:2 three full weeks—distinguished from the weeks of ch. 9:24—which were sevens of years.

    10:5 [first part] The up-look changes all.

    10:5-6 The majesty of God seen in His angel.

    10:8 The breakdown of the prophet.

    10:7-18 The collapse of man when he has a vision of God. Compare Abraham—Jacob—Moses—Joshua—Gideon—Manoah—Isaiah—Jeremiah—Job—Peter—John—Paul.
    Note the 3 touches: 1—set on his knees, v. 10; 2— lips, v. 16; 3—touch of power, v. 18.

    10:12 Conflict in the heavenlies—restraining the answer to prayer.

    11 Porphyry declared this chapter must have been written after the events mentioned, so accurately are the wars and intrigues of the Ptolemies and the Seleucidse described. Prophecy is history prewritten. History is prophecy fulfilled. “All history is His story.”

    11:2 three kings in Persia—Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius Hystaspes. fourth—Xerxes.

    11:3 a mighty king—Alexander the Great.

    11:4 four winds of heaven—Cassander, Lysimachus, Seleucus, Ptolemy, after battle of Ipsus.
    not to his posterity
    —Alexander left no heir. A posthumous son was murdered and the empire eventually divided among his four leading generals.

    11:5 king of the south—Ptolemy Lagus succeeded by P. Soter.
    have dominion
    —Seleucus Nicator annexed Babylon and Media, etc.

    11:6 Antiochus Theos married Berenice, daughter of P. Philadelphus, divorcing Laodice to do so.

    11:7-8 out of a branch of her roots—Berenice murdered, her son Callinicus reigned. P. Euergetes came against him. He won a great victory. Outlived Callinicus by four years.

    11:10 his [Callinicus’] sons—Ceraunus and Antiochus the Great attacked Egypt. Ceraunus died. Antiochus defeated by P. Philopater at battle of Raphia.

    11:13 Antiochus the Great allied with Philip III of Macedon.

    11:14 the robbers of thy people—Jewish apostates in army of Antiochus.

    11:15-16 Antiochus defeated the Egyptian general Sco-pias at Paneas. Antiochus went to Egypt—won great victory, returned to Palestine.

    1:16 consumed—perfected

    11:17 [last part] Cleopatra daughter of Antiochus wedded to P. Epiphanes.

    11:18-19 Isles of Aegean Sea subdued by Antiochus. Greeks sought aid of Romans. Lucius Scipio defeated A.—Antiochus slain while attempting to rob a temple of Jupiter at Elymais.

    11:20 a raiser of taxes—Seleucus Philopater sent Helio-dorus to plunder the temple at Jerusalem. Failing he assassinated his master.

    11:21 a vile person—Antiochus Epiphanes.

    11:22 also the prince of the covenant—i.e., the high priest in Israel.

    11:23-24 Antiochus Epiphanes in league with Jews and P. Philometer. League broken. War between Epiphanes and Philometer.

    11:27 Professed truce Antiochus Epiphanes and P. Philometer.

    11:28 his heart shall be against the holy covenant— Antiochus Epiphanes defiled the temple when Jerusalem was sacked. See verse 31.

    11:30 Popilius Loenus and Roman army forced Antiochus to keep peace. AE the circle! After they left, Antiochus broke his promise and furiously attacked the Jews.
    [last part] Antiochus in league with Jewish apostates.

    11:31 [last part] 2300 days.

    11:32 [last part] The Maccabees.

    11:36-38 Isa. 30:33. The last days, antichrist. In the 70th week of ch. 9. The Syrian little horn comes against him. See v. 40. In league with the Roman little horn “The Prince that shall come.” The 7 years’ covenant.

    11:40 A king of the south at the time of the end: but not of Egyptian blood—See Ezek. 30:13; Zech. 10:11.

    11:41-42 The Mahometan powers seeking to oust the Jew from Palestine. The king of the north will be unfaithful to his own ally—the king of the south.

    11:45 Utter destruction of the last Mahometan ruler—the king of the north.

    12:4 Contrast with Revelation—“seal not!”

    12:7 a time, times, and an half—See this period in the Apocalypse.

    12:9 Contrast with the unsealed book of Rev.—ch. 22:10. See Isa. 29:10.