As an apostle he had special authority and power in this direction.
When once the apostles had passed off the scene the only discipline
possible was that exerted by the church or by the saints collectively;
and that so often in these days appears to be singularly ineffectual.
There are of course reasons for this. One reason is that it has been so
often perverted to ends of a personal or party nature that the whole
idea of it has fallen into disrepute. Another is that even when
discipline has been rightly inflicted it has been done in a harsh
judicial spirit instead of in the spirit of humiliation and sorrow
which marked the Apostle here. We have made it the cold, heartless
discipline of the court of law instead of the warm, affectionate
discipline of the family circle.
Still, discipline there has to be: the discipline of God's house,
which is not prejudiced nor unreasoning but founded on well established
facts. Hence when Paul came he intended that every word should be
established in the mouth of two or three witnesses. All should be
sifted with impartiality, so that if some reports were not based upon
fact their falsity might be exposed, and their weight fall not upon the
head of the accused but upon the head of the accusers. Some may have
sinned by licentiousness as Paul feared; but others may have sinned by
"backbitings" and "whisperings" of false accusations, because their
hearts were filled with envy. All would be made manifest and judged, as
we see in the opening verses of chapter 13. We venture to think that,
if today there were as much zeal in bringing discipline to bear against
the backbiters and whisperers as against the licentious, it would be
for the spiritual health and well-being of the church of God.
Paul's authority as an apostle had however been questioned, and the
Corinthians had very foolishly given ear to these questionings. They
were the last persons who should have done so, or should have had any
doubts as to whether Christ had spoken through him. Since they had
entertained such doubts, some kind of answer was needed, and a very
crushing one Paul was able to give. He had simply to say, "Examine
yourselves, whether ye be in the faith." Since they were his converts,
the fruit of his labour, they themselves were the proof-unless indeed
they were reprobates, just worthless frauds. If they were but frauds
then indeed Christ might not have spoken in Paul; but if they were true
men He most certainly had.
Verse 5 has sometimes been taken apart from its context and turned
into a plea for continual self-inspection, and even doubt as to one's
own salvation. This is because the parenthesis extending from the
middle of verse 3 to the end of verse 4 has not been noticed. If we
connect the early part of verse 3 with verse 5 the sense is quite
clear. There is again a touch of irony in Paul's words, for the doubts
they had foolishly entertained as to Christ speaking in him really
recoiled upon their own heads. If indeed Christ had not spoken in Paul then-since they had professed conversion under his speaking-Christ would not be found in them. But if Christ was indeed found in them it was conclusive proof that Christ had spoken in him.
It is quite possible of course that in speaking thus the Apostle
wished to convey to them the fact that he was not too sure of the
genuineness of some of them, and thereby he desired to stir them up and
exercise their consciences. At the same time he was quite confident as
to the majority of them.
This is evident if we consider the parenthesis, the first words of
which tell us that Christ had not been "weak" toward them but rather
"mighty in you." Looking back to the work that had been wrought when
first he came among them, Paul was full of confidence that the power of
Christ had been in it. The whole path of Christ on earth had been
characterized by a "weakness" which culminated in His crucifixion. Yet
He is alive in resurrection by the power of God. Now that which marked
the path of the great Master marked also the path of the servant, who
was following in His life and way. Weakness also characterized the
external life and service of the Apostle but under the surface the
power of God was vitally present with him.
The words at the end of verse 4 are remarkable-"by the power of God toward you." These
words indicate that what was in the Apostle's mind was not that he
would live in resurrection in the time to come, but that, as associated
with the living Christ, he would display in the present the power of
that life towards the Corinthians. Christianity is marked by the power
of a new life which operates in blessing. Nothing short of that, whether it be creed or ceremony or work, will do.
The whole passage shows once more that what God looks for is reality
and power. It emphasizes also that, as far as outward appearances go,
weakness has been stamped upon the true saints and servants of God from
the beginning, even when the Gospel was winning its earliest and
greatest triumphs. We need not therefore be surprised if weakness is
stamped upon us today. The thing to be concerned about is that we may
judge and refuse all that would jeopardize that power.
The self-abnegation of the Apostle again comes strikingly to light
in verse 7. He prayed that they might do no evil, and so be manifestly
approved and not reprobate; and this, not that it might approve his
work amongst them, and so be for his glory, but that they might do what
is right, and so prove beyond all question that they were not
reprobates. If that were so he would be content, even though he
appeared to be a reprobate himself. That he was not a reprobate he knew
very well, and he trusted they knew it too, as he says in verse 6.
So also we see his self-abnegation in verse 9. He was not only
content but glad to be weak if it but led to spiritual strength in
those to whom he ministered; the great object before him being the
perfecting of the saints. He longed to see them led forward to
completion-to full growth in Christ. As for himself, he knew that all
the power in which he served was Divine in its origin, and so was only
available for so long as he was labouring for the truth and in the
truth. If he had turned against the truth he would instantly have been
shorn of that power. There are powers antagonistic to the
truth, but in the long run they cannot prevail. Hence against the truth
he was powerless, whilst for it he was powerful.
In all this a note of sharpness or severity has not been absent, and
in verse 10 we have the explanation of why he had written in this
strain. He anticipated being amongst them for the third time and
desired to overthrow and clear away the evil by means of this letter,
and so have only the happy work of building up what is good when he
came. He had authority given of the Lord, but it was primarily for
building up. Overthrowing is necessary, as we saw when reading the
early part of 2 Cor. 10, but only in view of building up, which is the
great thing the Lord desires for His people.
Verse 11 gives us the closing desires. If we are perfected,
of good comfort (or encouraged), of one mind, and at peace, we shall
indeed do well. It is easy to see that these were things much needed by
the Corinthians But we need them just as badly. The church of God
today, as a whole, is in a condition very similar to them. There is
plenty of immaturity, of discouragement, of disunity, of strife: indeed
these things seem very much to flow one out of the other. They are met
and countered by a true ministry such as Paul's; and maturity,
encouragement, unity and peace are promoted. May it be so with us, and
we too shall know the presence of the God of love and peace.
Verses 12 and 13 give the closing salutations. Verse 11
being fulfilled in them, there would be no difficulty amongst
themselves, no jealousies and strifes and evil speakings, which would
prevent their saluting one another in holiness. The spirit of faction,
the desire to boast of being of Paul or Peter or Apollos, would be cast
out. Moreover "all the saints" saluted them, for their affections had
not been alienated from them by reason of their blameworthy condition
of unspirituality. The saints elsewhere had not formed a party against
them, or what is even worse, fallen themselves into parties as the
result of hearing about the schisms at Corinth. All the saints saluted them, in spite of their failures.
Verse 14 gives the closing benediction. Here we have
indicated the great realities which are calculated to produce the
things desired in verse 11- grace, love and communion, proceeding
respectively from the three Persons of the Godhead. Let us notice in
passing that the Lord Jesus, who is so often spoken of as the Second
Person, is put in the first place here, just as the Holy Spirit is put
in the first place in 1 Corinthians 12. All such terms as First, Second
or Third Person must therefore be used with a considerable measure of
The grace of the Lord Jesus was known by the Corinthians, as the Apostle had acknowledged in chapter viii. It is another and a further, thing for it to be with us all. Then we shall all be
pervaded by its blessed influence. So with the love of God; and so too
with the communion of the Holy Spirit. In this benediction the grace is
put first, for if that fails with us all will fail.
Heaven will be filled with the love of God and the communion of the
Holy Spirit, but we shall not need grace-at least, not as we need it
here. It is in the circle of the church on earth that all kinds of
trials and testings occur. It is here that we have to do with perverse
men and trying brethren, all the while possessing wayward hearts
ourselves. Nothing but the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ can preserve
us in a way that is pleasing to God. But the grace of the Lord can do it.
And if the grace of the Lord does preserve us, then the love of God
and the communion of the Holy Spirit may have full course and be with
us all. The Spirit being holy the communion which He inspires must be
holy. We shall be found in happy partnership and fellowship as to the
whole range of things which He reveals to us, even the deep things of
The love of God shines upon us as His children, even when our practical condition is not at all pleasing to Him. But when it is with us all its
benediction is felt throughout the great circle of all saints. Indeed
it overflows that circle and goes out to the world beyond. A lovely
picture is thus presented of what the church is according to the
thought of God: a circle governed by grace, overflowing with love, and
filled with a holy communion concerning the things of God.
We cannot say that the church is that practically; but we can say
that it may and should be that. We can say also that if any of us
approximate to this, even in a small degree, we shall be greatly
blessed, and be a benediction to others.
So may it be then with all of us.